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An Introduction & Guide to Coin Collecting
Glossary of Numismatic Terms
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Numismatic Terms & Acronyms
(in Alphabetical Order)
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| D | E | F | G | H | I | J
| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q
| R | S | T | U | V | W | X
| Y | Z
- Grading service. ACcu-Grade. Controversial at present, because the assigned grades seem to be
inflated relative to standard services like PCGS and NGC.
- adjustment marks
- Marks caused by filing a planchet before striking to reduce its weight to the standard, as was sometimes done
for early U.S. coinage.
- AG (AG3)
- About Good. Grade.
- A book-like holder with slots for storing coins.
- Intentionally modified after the minting process.
- American Numismatic Association. Collector and dealer organization.
- Grading service. The initials originally stood for "American Numismatic Association Certification Service".
It has since been sold to a company independent of the ANA.
- A coin produced prior to about 500 A.D.
- artificial toning
- Coloration added to a coin by treatment with chemicals or other "doctoring".
- To evaluate, appraise, examine & judge carefully in order to fix a value.
- ASE (SAE or SE)
- American Silver Eagle. A one ounce silver bullion coin, issued by the United States government from 1986-date.
- n. A characteristic of a coin.
v. To identify a coin by determining the country of origin, denomination, series, date, mintmark and/or
- AU (AU50, AU53, AU55, AU58)
- About Uncirculated. Grade.
- A public or private sale in which items are sold to the highest bidder.
- auction house (traditional auction house)
- A place where public and/or private auctions are held.
- An original, non-counterfeit coin.
- Determination by an expert on whether or not a coin is authentic.
- bag marks
- Small scratches and nicks resulting from movement of coins in the same bag (also known as contact marks or
- bank note
- Paper money issued by a bank.
- A non-numismatic form of precious metal bullion. Bars come in many sizes.
- bas relief
- Design elements are raised within depressions in the field
- B# (B1-B10?)
- Browning number (1925). Die variety - Bust Quarters, 1796-1838.
- B# (B1-B23?)
- Bolender number (1950, 1998). Die variety - Silver Dollars, 1794-1803.
- BB# (BB1-BBn?)
- Bowers and Borckardt number (1993). Die variety - Silver Dollars, 1794-1804 and later.
- BG# (BG101-BG1313)
- Breen and Gillio number (1983). Die variety - California private gold, 1852-1882.
- n. The amount or price offered for an item or the amount an item is expected to sell for
v. To offer an amount or price for an item.
- An alloy of silver and another metal, usually copper, which is less than 50% silver.
- A coin or coin-like object combining parts composed of two different metal alloys.
- Pieces of eight were physically cut into eighths; each piece is one bit.
- A piece of metal being prepared for coinage before the rims have been raised by passing through the upsetting
- Brown. Color grade for uncirculated copper coins.
- A location where dealers buy and sell coins with each other and the public, such as at a coin show.
- A coin struck without a firmly seated collar, resulting in "spreading" outwards, but still showing
all design details.
- A mirror image of the design from one side of a coin impressed on the opposite side - occasionally, a newly
struck coin "sticks" to a die, causing the next coin struck to have a First Strike Mirror Brockage of
the coin stuck to the die; by the second strike the mirror is distorted, and later strikes are termed Struck Through
A Capped Die.
- Brilliant Uncirculated. A grade with a numerical value equal to about MS60-62.
- A coin or other object composed primarily of a precious metal, with little or no value beyond that of the metal.
- Bureau of Engraving and Printing
- An agency of the U.S. Treasury Department responsible for production of currency.
- business strike or business issue
- A coin struck and intended for circulation.
- Bullion Value. The value of the coin is closely related to its metallic content (usually silver or gold).
- Charlotte (North Carolina). Mintmark, 1838-61, gold coins only.
- C# (C1-C23?)
- Cohen number (1982). Die variety - Half Cents, 1793-1857.
- Post confederation Canadian numismatics.
- A coin, usually struck as a Proof, with a frosted or satiny central device surrounded by a mirrorlike field.
- The pattern of light reflected by flow lines of mint state coins, resembling spokes of a wheel;
Name given to the British pennies and twopences of 1797 due to their unusually broad rims.
- Carson City (Nevada). Mintmark, 1870-93, gold and silver coins only.
- certified coin
- A coin authenticated and graded by a professional service.
- To find and purchase a coin worth a premium over the seller's asking price (generally a rare die variety priced
appropriately for a more common variety).
- chop mark
- A symbol (added to money by someone other than the government which issued it) to indicate authenticity.
- Denotes money that is no longer in mint state, generally as a result of normal handling and exchange.
- Composed of more than one layer, such as the copper-nickel over copper composition of U.S. dimes, quarters,
and halves minted presently.
- clash mark(s)
- Outlines and/or traces of designs from the opposite side of a coin resulting from die clash.
- Any process that removes foreign substances, corrosion or toning, e.g. application of solvents, dipping, and
rubbing with abrasive materials or substances.
- cleaned coin
- While any coin subjected to a cleaning process could technically be considered cleaned, this term most commonly
refers to those which have been abrasively cleaned (a coin which has been abrasively cleaned generally has a lower
numismatic value than an otherwise comparable uncleaned specimen).
- A coin, planchet or blank missing a portion of metal from its periphery, caused by an error during blank production;
types of clips include curved (most common), ragged, straight, eliptical, bowtie, disk and assay.
- Deliberate shearing or shaving from the edge of gold and silver coins. Patterns and mottos are included on
edges of many coins to discourage the practice.
- CMM# (CMM1-CMM13?)
- Cohen, Munson, Munde number (1971). Die variety - Half Cents, 1793-1857.
- A piece of metal with a distinctive stamp and of a fixed value and weight issued by a government and used as
money or "legal tender".
- coin envelopes
- A special envelope made from paper which has little or no harmful chemicals that may affect a coin's appearance,
condition or value.
- coin show
- An event where numismatic items are bought, sold, traded and often exhibited.
- A device present in a coining press to restrict the outward flow of metal during striking and to put the design,
if any, on the edge of the coin.
- The numismatic holdings of an individual (or group, organization, estate, etc.) in total or of a particular
- A coin issued by any colony; frequently refers to those produced by European colonies in the Americas in the
17th and 18th centuries.
- A coin with a design commemorating a person, place or event
- condition census
- A list of the finest known specimens of a particular variety of coin.
- To hand merchandise over to someone you entrust to sell for you.
- contact marks
- Small surface scratches or nicks resulting from movement of coins in the same bag or bin.
- An imitation of a coin or note made to circulate as if actually money;
An altered or non-genuine coin made to deceive collectors, usually a more valuable date or variety.
- California Small Denomination Gold.
- A raised lump of metal on a coin caused by a piece of a die having broken off.
- A coin that is extremely worn and/or damaged.
- cupro-nickel (or copper-nickel)
- Composed of an alloy of copper and nickel, as for example U.S. 5 cent coins (other than half dimes) and Canadian
5 cent coins produced since 1982.
- Paper money.
- Coin World. Publication.
- Dahlonega (Georgia). Mintmark, 1838-61, gold coins only.
Denver (Colorado). Mintmark, 1906-present.
- Physical change to a numismatic item, such as a scratch, nick, ding, cleaning, hole, pitting the effects of
chemicals or environment, etc.
- The year(s) shown on a coin, usually the same as the year it was minted.
- DC (also DCAM)
- Deep Cameo. High grade proof.
- Deep Cameo. High grade proof.
- Doubled Die Obverse. Type of die variety.
- Doubled Die Reverse. Type of die variety.
- A person or company that regularly buys and sells numismatic collectibles.
- dealer buy price
- The price at which most dealers are currently buying a particular coin. The price a dealer buys a coin for.
- deep mirror prooflike (DMPL)
- Having highly reflective mirrorlike fields, similar to a coin struck as a Proof.
- Metal missing or retained but peeling from the surface due to incomplete bonding or impurities in the planchet.
- An ancient Roman silver coin weighing about 3 grams, roughly the same size as a U.S. dime but thicker.
- The face value of a coin. It's monetary worth as legal tender.
- Tooth like raise features just inside the rim of some coins (also known as dentils).
- The devices, lettering, etc. appearing on a coin and their arrangement with respect to each other.
- The creator of a coin's design.
- A major design element, such as the bust of a person.
- A usually cylindrical piece of steel bearing at one end the incuse design of one side of a coin (except for
coins with incuse detail, where the die details are in relief).
- die chip
- A small fragment broken off from a die; metal flowing into the resulting hole during striking results in a
small raised lump on the surface of the coin.
- die clash
- Upper and lower dies coming together in a coin press without a planchet between them; design details may be
partially impressed in the opposite dies and subsequently as mirror images on coins struck from the clashed dies.
- die crack
- A narrow fissure in the surface of a die; coins struck with such a die have a narrow raised line corresponding
to the crack.
- die erosion
- Wear on a die from use in the minting process.
- die flow lines
- (see "flow lines")
- die state
- The condition of a die at a particular point in its life.
- die polish
- Small raised lines in the field of a coin resulting from polishing of a die to remove chips, clash marks, etc.
- Cleaning by immersion in a liquid capable of removing molecules from the surface, such as a solution containing
- The original spelling of dime, 1/10 of a dollar.
- Deep Mirror Proof Like. Business strike, with deep mirrored planchet.
- double denomination
- A rare error in which a previously struck coin is restruck by the die pair of another denomination.
- double die
- A dubious term sometimes intended to mean a doubled die coin and sometimes indicating machine doubling (because
there is often a substantial difference in value between the two, a savvy buyer will be sure to determine which
case is true for any coin described as such).
- doubled die
- A die with doubled device details, letters and/or numerals resulting from any of several possible differences
between the multiple hub impressions during its manufacture; a coin struck from such a die.
- double eagle
- A U.S. gold coin with a face value of $20, first minted in 1849 and last officially minted in 1932.
- An ancient Greek silver coin weighing about 3 grams, roughly the same size as U.S. dime but thicker.
- Early American Coppers, Inc. Collector and dealer organization.
- A U.S. gold coin with a face value of $10, first minted in 1795 and last minted in 1933; also, the current
U.S. $50 face value gold bullion coin.
- The "third side" of a coin, encompassing the perimeter.
- EF (EF40, EF45)
- Extremely Fine. Grade.
- E Pluribus Unum
- "Out of many, one"; the motto on many U.S. coins.
- Any unintentional deviation in the minting process resulting in one or more coins with a different appearance
- The lower part of a coin or medal, usually divided from the field by a line and often containing the date,
mintmark or engraver's initial(s).
- Tokens, medals and other non-monetary coin-like objects.
- eye appeal
- Overall attractiveness (beauty is in the eye of the beholder).
- F (F12, F15)
- Fine. Grade.
- face value
- The ordinary monetary worth of a coin or note at the time of issue.
- fair market value
- The American Heritage Dictionary descibes it as "the price, as of a commodity or service, at which both
buyers and sellers agree to do business". To many people "fair market value" has come to mean the
most commonly accepted price at which the majority of buyers and sellers agree to do business.
- The flat background on a coin, medal or token.
- Canadian five cents silver coin or United States three cent silver coin.
- British term for a planchet.
- A clear, soft plastic holder normally used for a single coin.
- flow lines
- Microscopic lines in the surface of a coin resulting from the outward flow of metal during striking.
- fiat money
- Money that is not backed by specie and is legal tender by decree.
- fractional currency
- Paper money with a face value of less than one dollar.
- FS# (FS1-FS?)
- Fivaz and Stanton number (19xx). Die variety - many series.
- fugio cent
- The first coin issued by authority of the United States, produced by contractors in 1787.
- G (G4, G6)
- Good. Grade.
- An epoxy coated plaster relief model of a coin, token or medal created by electrodeposition (much larger than
the dies later created from it).
- Gallery Mint Museum. A current producer of replicas of early US coins.
- One of several terms summarizing the overall condition of a coin or other numismatic item; the process of evaluation
leading to assignment of a grade.
- the Coin Dealer Newsletter, a price guide for U.S. coins intended for dealer-to-dealer sight seen
- Light scratches in the surface of a coin.
- half cent.
- A U.S. coin with a face value of 1/200th of a dollar first minted in 1793 and last minted in 1857
- half dime
- A U.S. coin with a face value of 5 cents issued with dates between 1794 and 1873; originally called a half
- half eagle
- A U.S. gold coin with a face value of $5 first minted in 1795 and last minted in 1929.
- hobo nickel
- A coin (usually a U.S. Buffalo nickel) physically altered to produce a substantially different image.
- Having a hole drilled through it, usually as a result of being used for jewelry.
- Any device designed for storage and sometimes display of numismatic items.
- A steel bar used to make dies having the same raised design on one end as one side of the coins ultimately
- Grading service. Independent Coin Grading Service.
- impaired proof
- A proof coin with wear or damage resulting from circulation or other handling.
- The opposite of relief -- design elements are impressed into the surface.
- J# (J1-J1778?)
- Judd number (1959-77). Pattern or experimental coin.
- JR# (JR1-JR13?)
- John Reich number (Davis, et al, 1984). Die variety - Bust Dimes, 1794-1837.
- key date
- The rarest (or one of the most rare) and therefore most expensive members of a coin series, e.g. the 1909-S
VDB Lincoln cent or 1916-D Mercury dime.
- KM# (KM1-KM?)
- Krause and Mishler number. From Standard Catalog of World Coins. Type of world coin. Includes California,
Mormon, Colorado, Hawaii.
- A numismatic publishing company (Krause Publications); this company's Standard Catalog of World Coins.
- lamination flaw
- (see "delamination")
- large cent
- A U.S. coin with a value of 1 cent, minted from 1793 to 1857, composed primarily of copper and larger in diameter
than the current U.S. quarter or A similar Canadian coin issued between 1858-1920.
- legal tender
- Money that may be legally offered in payment of an obligation and that a creditor must accept (source: Webster's
New World Dictionary).
- Lettering on a coin other than the denomination or nation which issued it
- Popular name for the Canadian loon dollar coin first issued in 1987.
- A type of magnifying glass used by numismatists and jewelers.
- love token
- A coin (or sometimes a token) which has been altered by someone as a rememberance or in a tribute to another
person. Most commonly a love token will have a loved one's name or intitials engraved into it. Some love tokens
have been painstakingly engraved with elaborate scrollwork.
- The brilliance of a coin, resulting from reflection of light off die flow lines.
- machine doubling
- Doubling of details resulting from loose dies during striking (generally considered to have no numismatic value).
- mail bid
- An auction format in which bids are submitted by mail; the highest offer for each lot received by the closing
date wins the lot (several other rules usually apply).
- matte proof
- A proof coin with a granular (rather than mirrorlike) surface produced by dies treated to obtain a minutely
etched surfaces (usually in the raised portion of the coin's design).
- A coin-like object struck to honor one or more persons or events depicted or mentioned in its design; an object
awarded to persons in recognition of service or other accomplishment.
- melt/melt value
- The worth of precious metal in a coin, determined by multiplying the amount of the metal it contains by the
spot price of the metal.
- A facility for manufacturing coins.
- The quantity of a denomination of coins produced at a mint during a period of time (usually one year).
- mint bloom
- The original surface of a newly minted coin.
- A letter or symbol designating the mint which produced the item bearing it.
- mint set
- A specially packaged group of uncirculated coins from one or more mints of the same nation containing at least
one coin for most or all of the denominations issued during a particular year.
- mint state
- In the same condition as when delivered from the mint (natural toning excepted); uncirculated.
- misplaced date
- One or more digits of a date punched away from the intended location, such as in the denticles or in the central
- A phrase imprinted on a coin, for most U.S. coins "E PLURIBUS UNUM".
- MS (MS60-MS70)
- Mint State. (Uncirculated, business strike). Grade.
- A coin struck from two dies not intended to be used together.
- multiple strike
- A coin struck more than once as a result of not being properly ejected from the coining press.
- mylars or mylar coin holders
- This commonly refers to a holder made from cardboard which has two coin-sized holes cut out in a particular
denomination. The holes are covered with a plastic film (mylar). A coin is placed in one cut out aread and the
cardboard is folded in half, allowing both sides of the coin to be seen through the plastic film. The cardboard
is usually held together by staples or glue (as with pre-glued mylars). Mylar film is used because it has no known
chemicals which may cause damage to coins, however, a coin may become toned from chemicals which are found in some
staples, gum, or tape.
- N# (N1-N17?)
- Newcomb number (1944). Die variety - Large Cents, 1816-1868.
- N# (N1-N105?)
- Newman number (1952). Die variety - Fugio Cents, 1787.
- natural toning
- Coloration resulting from chemical change on the surface during normal environmental exposure over a prolonged
- Not Collectable. A unique or nearly unique coin. Usually one of Sheldon's die varieties of Large Cents. At
the time of Sheldon's "Penny Whimsey" (1958), for a coin to be NC, there had to be less than 3 specimens
- net price
- A term signifying that the seller is unwilling to sell for less than the price marked.
- Grading service. Numismatic Guarantee Corporation.
- Numismatic Literary Guild. A prestigious organization of writers of numismatically related articles, books,
- Numismatic News. Publication.
- The collection and study of coins, tokens, medals, paper money and other objects exchanged for goods and services
or manufactured by similar methods.
- A person who collects and/or studies numismatic items.
- O# (O101-O128?)
- Overton number (1970). Die variety - Bust Half Dollars, 1794-1836.
- A small silver coin of ancient Greece, originally a day's wages for a rower on a galley or a citizen on jury
- The front or "heads" side of a coin, often bearing a portrait and date.
- off center
- Incorrectly centered during striking, resulting in part of the design missing (off the edge).
- Over MintMark. Two different mintmarks involved. (versus RPM, which is the same mintmark punched more than
once). Type of die variety.
- on-line auctions
- An auction held over the Internet, such as on Ebay.
- original/original toning
- Having natural surfaces resulting from long exposure to ordinary environmental conditions; uncleaned.
- A coin struck from a die with at least one digit of the date repunched over a different digit, e.g. 1809/6
- Designated with a higher grade than merited.
- over mintmark
- One mintmark on top of a different mintmark, such as a 'D' over an 'S' (denoted D/S).
- Philadelphia (Pennsylvania). Mintmark, 1942-45 (5c only), 1979- (all but 1c). Sometimes denotes absence of
- paper money.
- Paper notes with standardized characteristics issued as money
- British term for exonumia.
- A thin layer of naturally oxidized metal on the surface of a coin acquired with age.
- A coin struck as a test piece for a new design, sometimes without a date.
- Professional Coin Grading Service. Grading service.
- Photo-certified Coin Institute. Grading service.
- PF (PF60-PF70)
- Proof. Type of coin production and/or Grade. Contrasts with business strike.
- pick up point
- An area where a feature, such as die doubling, is most evident.
- piece of eight
- A former Spanish coin with a face value of eight reales; the U.S. dollar was originally valued at and tied
to eight reales.
- Having a rough surface due to loss of metal by corrosion.
- Proof Like. Business strike, with mirrored planchet.
- A piece of metal prepared for coinage with raised rims but as yet unstruck.
- Denotes that a holed coin has been filled.
- Professional Numismatists Guild. Dealer organization.
- Having a granular surface as the result of oxidation, most frequently found with older copper coins.
- Premium Quality. Sometimes part of the sealed slab grade, such as a MS64 PQ (not quite good enough for MS65).
Often it is just a hype adjective like "Choice" or "Select".
- PR (PR60-PR70)
- Proof. Type of coin production and/or Grade. Contrasts with business strike.
- precious metals
- Term usually reserved for gold, silver, platinum, etc.
- A price or value over and above (in addition to) a coins face value.
- prestige set
- A set of coins produced by the U.S. Mint containing one or more proof commemorative coins released in the same
year, as well as a proof cent, nickel, dime, quarter and half.
- problem coin
- Any coin that has been cleaned or damaged or has other undesirable characteristics.
- A coin specially manufactured to have extra sharp detail, mirrorlike fields and sometimes frosted or "cameo"
devices, produced for sale to collectors at a premium or for exhibition or presentation.
- Having mirrorlike fields, similar to a coin struck as a Proof.
- proof like
- A coin specially manufactured by the Royal Canadian Mint with mirror fields.
- proof set
- A specially packaged group of coins containing at least one of most or all of the denominations of proof coins
struck by a nation in a particular year.
- Poly Vinyl Chloride. An ingredient of soft plastic "flip" coin holders which will damage coins over
- quarter eagle
- A U.S. gold coin with a face value of $2.50 first minted in 1796 and last minted in 1929.
- R# (R1-R8)
- Rarity scale. R1 most common; R8 least common. The often used Sheldon scale is:
- R8 = 1-3 known (estimated), "Unique or Nearly Unique"
- R7 = 4-12 known, "Extremely Rare"
- R6 = 13-30 known, "Very Rare"
- R5 = 31-75 known, "Rare"
- R4 = 76-200 known, "Very Scarce"
- R3 = 201-500 known, "Scarce"
- R2 = 501-1250 known, "Uncommon"
- R1 = over 1251 known, "Common"
- An infrequently encountered or available item; the number of surviving specimens of a particular issue, as
may be indicated by a rarity scale index.
- rarity scale
- A convention for designating the rarity of a coin, such as Sheldon's system (with values such as R1 for common
pieces and R6 for extremely rare specimens) and the Universal Rarity Scale invented by Alan Herbert (with designations
such as URS3).
- Red-Brown. Color grade for uncirculated copper coins (BN, RB, or RD).
- Red. Color grade for uncirculated copper coins (BN, RB, or RD).
- A former basic monetary unit of Spain and Spanish colonies in the Americas.
- Red Book
- The Handbook of U.S. Coins, a retail price guide for U.S. coins published annually, originally written
by R.S. Yeoman.
- reeded edge
- An edge with raised parallel lines, a.k.a. milled or grained.
- Features rising above the field.
- repunched date
- A date with one or more of the digits punched more than once in different locations and/or orientations.
- repunched mintmark (RPM)
- A mintmark punched more than once in different locations and/or orientations.
- A coin struck with authentic dies later than the date it bears.
- retail or retail price
- The price at which a coin or item is commonly sold in a retail store. Price of an item sold to "end"
user or collector.
- The back or "tails" side of a coin.
- Roman Imperial Coinage.
- The outer edge of a coin, often raised to avoid premature wear.
- A disc shaped piece of precious metal bullion.
- Roman Provincial Coinage.
- RePunched Date. Type of die variety.
- RePunched Mintmark. Type of die variety.
- Roman Silver Coinage.
- San Francisco (California). Mintmark, 1854-1955, 1968-present.
- S# (S1-S295?)
- Sheldon number (1949). Die variety - Large Cents, 1793-1814.
- S# (S1-S9?)
- Snow number (1992). Die variety - Flying Eagle and Indian Head Cents, 1856-1909.
- SAE (ASE)
- Silver American Eagle. A one ounce silver bullion coin, issued 1986-date.
- A note issued by and redeemable at a merchant or group of merchants.
- Sovereign Entities Grading Service. Grading service.
- Coins of the same major design and denomination, including every combination of date and mintmark minted, e.g.
- Sheldon scale
- A numerical grading system ranging from 1 to 70 created by Dr. William H. Sheldon to denote proportional values
of large cents minted from 1793 to 1814 and subsequently adaped as a general grading scale.
- Canadian fractional banknotes.
- sight seen
- Available for examination to a potential buyer before a purchase decision is made.
- sight unseen
- Not available for examination to a potential buyer before a purchase decision is made, as is usually the case
with mail order transactions.
- silver certificate
- A note (paper money) once redeemable for its face value in silver.
- silver clad
- A clad coin with one layer containing silver, such as U.S. halves struck from 1965 to 1970.
- silver eagle
- A coin produced by the U.S. mint beginning in 1986 containing one ounce of silver and having a nominal face
value of $1 (not released for circulation).
- A coin certified by a professional grading service as authentic and encapsulated in a sealed hard plastic holder
also containing a label bearing the service's opinion of its grade and other information.
- A coin with very slight traces of wear, such that it almost passes for an uncirculated specimen.
- Specimen. Better than business strike, but not quite a proof.
- Precious metal used to back money, usually gold and silver.
- split grade
- Different grades for the obverse and reverse sides.
- Short for spot price.
A small area of corrosion or foreign substance
- spot price
- The market price for immediate delivery of a commodity, such as a precious metal.
- The difference between buy and sell prices on the same item(s) of a dealer, broker, etc.
The extent of separation between impressions on a doubled die.
- A U.S. gold coin pattern with a face value of $4 minted in 1879 and 1880.
- Incuse marks caused by rolling bars during planchet production.
- The process of impressing the design from a die into a planchet to make a coin, token or medal;
The completeness of detail (as in weak strike, full strike, etc.) created during this process.
- strike doubling
- See machine doubling.
- An ancient Greek silver coin weighing about 13 to 17 grams, roughly the same size as a U.S. quarter but three
- The rubbing of skin oil onto a coin in an attempt to hide contact marks.
- A coin-like object redeemable for a particular product or service, such as transportation on a bus or subway;
an unofficial coin issued by a business or town to be used as small change, e.g., in 17th-19th century Britain,
and in France in the 20th century.
- Color acquired from chemical change on the surface.
- trade dollar
- A U.S. coin with a face value of $1 minted from 1873 through 1885 specifically for commerce in the Orient;
A U.K. coin with a face value of $1 minted from 1895 through 1935 specifically for commerce in the Orient.
- A U.S. coin with a face value of 3 cents minted in predominantly silver alloys from 1851-1873.
- A plastic container designed for storing a roll or other quantity of coins of the same size.
- type coin
- Any coin of a particular design and denomination, usually one of the more common dates.
- type set
- A collection of coins of various designs; rather than try to complete the series, the goal of the type collector
is to obtain at least one example of several different types.
- UC (UCAM)
- Ultra Cameo. High grade proof.
- UNC (Unc., MS60?)
- Uncirculated. Grade.
- Never circulated; without any wear.
- V# (V1-V10?)
- Valentine number (1975). Die variety - Half Dimes, 1794-1873.
- Any variety of U.S. silver dollar described in the book Morgan and Peace Dollars by Van Allen and
- Any coin struck from a die pair that differs from others with the same date and mintmark, such as one exhibiting
die doubling, different style letters or numerals, or a repunched mintmark.
- VAM# (VAM1-VAM230?)
- Van Allen and Mallis number (1976). Die variety - Morgan Dollars, 1878-1921.
- VF (VF20, VF30, perhaps VF35)
- Very Fine. Grade.
- VG (VG8, VG10)
- Very Good. Grade.
- West Point (New York). Mintmark, 1984-present.
- want list
- A tabulation of collectibles sought by a collector, often including limits on condition and/or price.
- water mark
- A design put into paper at the manufacuring stage by pressing it while wet between rollers bearing the design.
- Metal lost during handling and contact with other objects.
- Alteration by mechanical polishing to produce a shiny surface.
- world coins
- Coins issued by various nations, as in a collection comprised of coins thereof.
- XF (XF40, XF45)
- eXtremely Fine. Grade.
Coin Collector's University attempts to address the most commonly
asked questions about coin collecting. It is intended only as a general guide to the hobby. The information found
in this website should not be misconstrued as an actual course in Numismatics and is in no way intended for use
as investment advice. Inclusion or mention of a product, dealer or company in this FAQ does not constitute an endorsement
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